Thermodynamic Modeling of Solid Flux Interactions with Molten Aluminum

Moodispaw M. P., ÇİNKILIÇ E., Luo A. A.

International Journal of Metalcasting, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s40962-023-01256-7
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Metalcasting
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: aluminum alloys, flux materials, melt efficiency, melt processing, thermodynamic calculations
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


Oxide and dross formation during aluminum melt processing results in a considerable amount of loss of metallic aluminum. The total melt loss generated during melt processing can be greatly reduced by efficient use of flux, particularly for melting aluminum scrap or secondary alloys. Effective use of cover fluxes can significantly reduce dross generation by creating a barrier between the metallic aluminum and the atmosphere. The amount of metallic aluminum trapped within the dross layer can also be reduced by up to 50% using drossing fluxes. However, reducing the industrial average melt loss has remained difficult. To evaluate flux ingredients used in the casting industry, computational thermodynamic software ThermoCalc was used to calculate the driving force for reactions between twenty-one flux ingredients and eighteen common alloying and impurity elements in foundry alloys. The thermodynamic calculations, combined with other properties, were used to provide a desirable list of cover and drossing ingredients, which are being experimentally validated.