Creation and finite-element analysis of multi-lattice structure design in hip stem implant to reduce the stress-shielding effect


Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, vol.236, no.2, pp.429-439, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


The term stress-shielding is frequently used to mention the reduction in mechanical stimulus in the surrounding bone due to the presence of a biomaterial inert implant whose mechanical properties are superior to bone. As the natural consequence of this, mineral loss occurs in the bone over time and creating subsequent weakness. One of the methods to reduce stress-shielding problem is to develop hip-stem implant designs that will transfer the load more to the bone. Therefore, in this study, multi-lattice designs were developed to reduce the stress-shielding effect in hip implant applications. For this, the proximal part of the hip implant stems has been divided into three parts. Simple cubic, body centered cubic, and face centered cubic lattice structures were created on the upper parts. Inner vertical and inner vertical + inner horizontal beams were added to the lattice structure of the upper part for middle and lower parts, respectively. Due to the multi-lattice designs, the maximum von Mises stress values on the hip implant stem were reduced from 289 to 189 MPa, as well as a weight reduction of up to 25.89%. Stress-shielding signals were obtained by determining the change in strain energy per unit bone mass caused by the presence of the femoral hip implant stem and its ratio to intact bone. In the case of using hip-stems having multi-lattice designs, there is a significant increase (max. 150.47%) in stress-shielding signals from different zones of the femur.