A novel normalization algorithm to facilitate pre-assessment of Covid-19 disease by improving accuracy of CNN and its FPGA implementation

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YAMAN S., Karakaya B., Erol Y.

Evolving Systems, vol.14, no.4, pp.581-591, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12530-022-09419-3
  • Journal Name: Evolving Systems
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.581-591
  • Keywords: Covid-19 disease, Deep Learning, FPGA, Image processing, Normalization
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


COVID-19 is still a fatal disease, which has threatened all people by affecting the human lungs. Chest X-Ray or computed tomography imaging is commonly used to make a fast and reliable medical investigation to detect the COVID-19 virus. These medical images are remarkably challenging because it is a full-time job and prone to human errors. In this paper, a new normalization algorithm that consists of Mean–Variance-Softmax-Rescale (MVSR) processes respectively is proposed to provide facilitation pre-assessment and diagnosis Covid-19 disease. In order to show the effect of MVSR normalization technique, the algorithm of proposed method is applied to chest X-ray and Sars-Cov-2 computed tomography images dataset. The normalized X-ray images with MVSR are used to recognize Covid-19 virus via Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model. At the implementation stage, the MVSR algorithm is executed on MATLAB environment, then all the arithmetic operations of the MVSR normalization are coded in VHDL with the help of fixed-point fractional number representation format on FPGA platform. The experimental platform consists of Zynq-7000 Development FPGA Board and VGA monitor to display the both original and MVSR normalized chest X-ray images. The CNN model is constructed and executed using Anaconda Navigator interface with python language. Based on the results of this study, infections of Covid-19 disease can be easily diagnosed with MVSR normalization technique. The proposed MVSR normalization technique increased the classification accuracy of the CNN model from 83.01, to 96.16% for binary class of chest X-ray images.