Effects of emodin and metformin on biochemical, histological and oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Bati B., YILDIRIM S., Celik I., Kaptaner B., Huyut Z., Yenilmez A., ...More

Journal of Elementology, vol.28, no.2, pp.319-335, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5601/jelem.2023.28.2.2360
  • Journal Name: Journal of Elementology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.319-335
  • Keywords: emodin, hepatotoxicity, metformin, nephrotoxicity, streptozotocin
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a lifelong metabolic disease with a high mortality rate, which reduces the quality of life of many people worldwide. Metformin is a hypoglycemic drug usually used to treat type 2 diabetes. Emodin has various protective effects and is widely used in holistic medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of emodin, metformin and the emodin + metformin combination in liver and kidney tissues of rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). For this purpose, 5 groups: I – Group Control (CG), II – Group STZ control (SC), III – Group STZ + metformin 250 mg kg-1 (SM), IV – Group STZ + emodin 40 mg kg-1 (SE) and V – Group STZ + metformin 250 mg kg-1 + emodin 40 mg kg-1 (SME) were formed with 7 rats in each group. Liver, kidney and blood samples were taken at the end of the experiment. In the study, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), gluta-thione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malond-ialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and kidney tissues were analyzed. In addition, histopathology and immunohistochemical and serum toxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, BUN and CREA) were analyzed. According to the experimental results, there was an increase in serum biomarker values in the SC group compared to the control group (p values for AST, ALT, CREA and BUN were p=0.005, p=0.001, p=0.006, p=0.001, respectively). Some antioxidant parameter values increased in SM, SE and SME groups compared to CG and SC groups (p=0.001 for GR in liver tissue and p=0.032 for GPX in kidney tissue). Histopathologic and immunohistochemical observations also supported biochemical parameter findings. In conclusion, oxidative stress parameters in liver and kidney tissue, serum samples, histopathologic and immunologic findings suggest that metformin, emodin and the metformin + emodin combination have positive effects on nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic side effects.