Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in a tourism development context

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de Vita G., Katircioglu S., Altinay L., Fethi S., Mercan M.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.22, no.21, pp.16652-16663, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 21
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-015-4861-4
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.16652-16663
  • Keywords: CO2 emissions, Environmental Kuznets curve, Tourism development, Turkey
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates empirically an extended version of the Environmental Kuznets Curve model that controls for tourism development. We find that international tourist arrivals into Turkey alongside income, squared income and energy consumption, cointegrate with CO2 emissions. Tourist arrivals, growth, and energy consumption exert a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions in the long-run. Our results provide empirical support to EKC hypothesis showing that at exponential levels of growth, CO2 emissions decline. The findings suggest that despite the environmental degradation stemming from tourism development, policies aimed at environmental protection should not be pursued at the expense of tourism-led growth.