An explanatory sequential mixed-method research on the full-scale implementation of flipped learning in the first years of the world's first fully flipped university: Departmental differences

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Birgili B., DEMİR Ö.

Computers and Education, vol.176, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 176
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104352
  • Journal Name: Computers and Education
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, Computer & Applied Sciences, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), INSPEC, Metadex, Psycinfo, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Flipped learning, Interaction, Motivation, Pedagogical issues, Post-secondary education
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


This study evaluates the first years of the full-scale flipped learning implementation process that began with an authority innovation-decision at the world's first fully flipped university in terms of departmental differences. The study employs an explanatory sequential mixed-method research. The primary respondents were 69 freshmen enrolled in the Faculty of Education at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. In addition to student participants, five faculty members were recruited to the study. The primary data was collected through a Likert-type scale on flipped learning, including components on motivation, course structure, and interaction. Pre and post semi-structured interviews and a structured ranking form were also used to support the quantitative data. The findings of the study reveal that the students felt relatively unmotivated when instructed through flipped learning, although were satisfied with the course structure. In general, the students lacked student-student interaction. Due to the nature of the Guidance and Psychological Counseling department, the students faced some difficulties in engaging in all three types of interaction (student-student, student-educator, and student-content). Lengthy and poor-quality videos and students' lack of preparation for classes emerged as major problems in flipped learning. The faculty members complained about the amount of time required for pre-class preparation (i.e., recording flipped videos). This paper discusses how to foster motivation, collaboration, discussion, and interaction in flipped learning in higher education settings so as to guide prospective practitioners.