A novel cycle counting perspective for energy management of grid integrated battery energy storage systems

AKPINAR K. N., GÜNDOĞDU B., Özgönenel O.

Energy Reports, vol.9, pp.123-131, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.egyr.2022.10.359
  • Journal Name: Energy Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.123-131
  • Keywords: Battery aging, BESS, Cycle counting, Energy management, Frequency ancillary service, SOC management
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are essential for flexible and reliable grid performance as the number of renewable energy sources in grids rises. The operational life of the batteries in BESS should be taken into account for maximum cost savings, despite the fact that they are beneficial for economical grid operation. In this context, this paper present a new battery cycle counting perspective for energy management of grid-connected BESS. For this purpose battery's one full charge–discharge cycle characteristic is compared with the operating battery charge–discharge cycle every time step. This comparison was explained mathematically and graphically in detail. The results are compared with the rain flow counting method which is the most popular cycle counting algorithm. Consequently, this cycle counting approach successfully counts the battery charge/discharge cycles and it has shown that has an advantage for BESSs due to being specifically developed just for batteries.