The Chaos in Syria in Terms of Human Security


7th International Symposium on Chaos, Complexity and Leadership, ICCLS 2020, Virtual, Online, 29 - 31 October 2020, pp.211-224 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/978-3-030-74057-3_16
  • City: Virtual, Online
  • Page Numbers: pp.211-224
  • Keywords: Chaos, Human security approach, Syria
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


Syria has been in a state of chaos since March 2011. Having responded to the first demonstrations of the opposition with an armed attack, Bashar al-Assad was neither fully powerful nor able to eliminate the chaos. International and regional powers such as Russia, USA, Iran and Turkey have not or have failed to resolve the crisis. Therefore, there is a full state of chaos in the country. The USA has strengthened the YPG/PKK in the region and created a terrorist corridor. Russia has solidified its fortifications at the Port of Tartus and guaranteed its presence in the Middle East. Iran has backed Assad and sent fighters against the opposition. Turkey, on the other hand, has supported the opposition and, with the help of the Syrian National Army, fought against the YPG with the operations of Operation Euphrates Shield, Olive Branch Operation and Operation Peace Spring. In addition, the Astana Trio (Russia, Turkey and Iran) have made attempts to soften the chaos in Syria. The human security approach is one that is centered on protecting human rights. This approach is based on the elimination of threats to human rights and freedoms. The overall objective of the human security approach is to protect individuals from any threat. In this context, the Humanitarian Development Report in 1994 listed threats in seven areas: Economic security, food safety, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security and political security. Consequently, it can be observed that there has been a state of chaos in Syria since March 2011. There is a terrorist corridor in northern Syria occupied by the US-backed YPG/PKK. Furthermore, there are also opposition groups supported by Turkey. Thus, the north of Syria is outside Assad’s control.