Exploring the role of situational flow experience in learning through design in 3D multi-user virtual environments

Doğan D., DEMİR Ö., TÜZÜN H.

International Journal of Technology and Design Education, vol.32, no.4, pp.2217-2237, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10798-021-09680-8
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Technology and Design Education
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, Compendex, Design & Applied Arts Index, EBSCO Education Source, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.2217-2237
  • Keywords: Collaborative learning problem-based learning approach constructionism, Flow theory, Learning through design, Three-dimensional multi-user virtual environments design education
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to examine the situational flow experiences of students creating 3D designs in 3D multi-user virtual environments. This time series quasi-experimental study included 40 volunteer junior students who studied at the Computer Education and Instructional Technology department and had taken the elective course of “Instructional Design”. The participants in the role of a designer created 3D designs in the OpenSimulator application throughout the process. They worked in groups to solve authentic problems. At the end of each session, the students were applied a flow experience scale individually. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the participants' flow experience did not differ by gender and overall grade point average. Autotelic activity and disappearance of self-consciousness were the highest components of flow experience indicating that the designers felt immersed in the 3D design activities throughout the 15-week implementation process. Considering flow experience by weeks, it was found that conveying theoretical information to the students diminished their flow experience owing to lack of the concentration, control and feedback components, whereas giving feedback after letting them present what they worked on fostered their flow experience by increasing the clear goals and immediate feedback components. The results highlighted the importance of flow experience in design education.