The Effect of Gender, Grade, Time and Chronotype on Computational Thinking: Longitudinal Study

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Demİr-Kaymak Z., Duman İ., Randler C., Horzum M. B.

Informatics in Education, vol.21, no.3, pp.465-478, 2022 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.15388/infedu.2022.22
  • Journal Name: Informatics in Education
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Central & Eastern European Academic Source (CEEAS), Communication Abstracts, EBSCO Education Source, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.465-478
  • Keywords: Chronotype, Computational thinking, Gender, Grade, Time of day
  • Hakkari University Affiliated: Yes


Problem-solving and critical thinking are associated with 21st century skills and have gained popularity as computational thinking skills in recent decades. Having such skills has become a must for all ages/grade levels. This study was conducted to examine the effects of grade level, gender, chronotype, and time on computational thinking skills. To this end, the study was designed to follow a longitudinal research model. Participants were 436 secondary school students. Computational thinking test scores were collected from the students at certain time intervals. Results indicate that computational thinking skills are independent of gender, time, and chronotype but differ significantly depending on grade level. The interaction between grade level and time of testing also has a significant impact on computational thinking skills. The difference in grade level can be interpreted as taking an information technologies course increases computational thinking. The results suggest that such courses should be promoted to children at a young age. The joint effect of gender, grade level, and chronotype were not statistically significant and it is recommended to conduct future studies to investigate this result